organized and prosperous nation. Indeed these traditions tend rapidly to die out except where they connect with some still unresolved nationalistic cause abroad, with some struggle for freedom, or some irredentism. The State in its inception is pure and undiluted monarchy; it is armed power, culminating in a single head, bent on one primary object, the reducing to subjection, to unconditional and unqualified loyalty of all the people of a certain territory. Waror at least modern war waged by a democratic republic against a powerful enemyseems to achieve for a nation almost all that the most inflamed political idealist could desire. What we are interested in is the American State as it behaves and as Americans behave towards it in this twentieth century, and to understand that we have to go no further back than the early English monarchy of which our American republic is the. The Government, with no mandate from the people, without consultation of the people, conducts all the negotiations, the backing and filling, the menaces and explanations, which slowly bring it into collision with some other Government, and gently and irresistibly slides the country into war. If they are consciously opposed by a too invidious policy of Americanism, they tend to be strengthened. Every individual citizen who in peacetimes had no living fragment of the State becomes an active amateur agent of the Government in reporting spies and disloyalists, in raising Government funds, or in propagating such measures as are considered necessary by officialdom. But the State stands as an idea behind them all, eternal, sanctified, and from it Government and Administration conceive themselves to have the breath of life. For the last stronghold of State power is foreign policy. It would be quite enough if we were gregarious enough to enjoy the companionship of others, to be able to cooperate with them, and to feel a slight malaise at solitude. Perhaps these great movements could scarcely be called wars at all, for war implies an organized people drilled and led; in fact, it necessitates the State.
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It has shown those who are really determined to end war that the problem is not the mere simple one of finishing a war that will end war. If all governments derive their authority from the consent of the governed, and if a people is entitled, at any time that it becomes oppressive, to overthrow it and institute one more nearly conformable to their interests and ideals, the old idea of the sovereignty. The colonies merely exchanged a system run in the interest of the overseas trade of English wealth for a system run in the interest of New England and Philadelphia merchanthood, and later of Southern slavocracy. That the American Presidents term was limited merely shows the confidence which the founders felt in the buttressing force of their instrument. War stimulates it to the highest possible degree, sending the influence of its mysterious herd-current with its inflations contrast essay between messi and ronaldo of power and obedience to the farthest reaches of the society, to every individual and little group that can possibly be affected. War has an immemorial tradition and heredity only because the State has a long tradition and heredity. And the motivations for such wars were either the restless expansion of migratory tribes or the flame of religious fanaticism. ( 1 38) What is the State essentially? Mankind is no exception. ( 1 19 there is, of course, in the feeling towards the State a large element of pure filial mysticism. Yet you do not put it to yourself in quite that way.