virtue and complete happiness, which he calls the highest good. Finally, the only way to act freely in the full sense of exercising autonomy is therefore to act on formal principles or categorical imperatives, which is also to act morally. The Enlightenment was a reaction to the rise and successes of modern science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Nevertheless, Kant attempts to show that these illusory ideas have a positive, practical use. This is why Kant thinks that transcendental idealism is the only way to make sense of the kind of freedom that morality requires. We are justified in doing this because it enables us to discover empirical laws of nature. To some limited extent we are capable of rationally shaping our desires, but insofar as we choose to act in order to satisfy desires we are choosing to let nature govern us rather than governing ourselves (5:118). In other words, to synthesize is in general to combine several representations into a single (more) complex representation, and to judge is specifically to combine concepts into a judgment that is, to join a subject concept to a predicate concept by means of the copula. An organism, by contrast, produces and sustains itself, which is inexplicable to us unless we attribute to organisms purposes by analogy with human art (5:374376). The domain of the concept of nature under the one legislation and that of the concept of freedom under the other are entirely barred from any mutual influence that they could have on each other by themselves (each in accordance with its fundamental laws). As Kants letter to Herz suggests, the main problem with his view in the Inaugural Dissertation is that it tries to explain the possibility of a priori knowledge about a world that is entirely independent of the human mind. In his lectures Kant used textbooks by Wolffian authors such as Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (17141762) and Georg Friedrich Meier (17181777 but he followed them loosely and used them to structure his own reflections, which drew on a wide range of ideas of contemporary interest.
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To show this, Kant argues that the categories are necessary conditions of experience, or that we could not have experience without the categories. Later critics of Lucian, including Alexander of Alexandria, during the Council of Nicaea in 325, associated his school with Ariuss rejection of the absolute divinity of Christ. Rather, his view is probably that we represent our endless progress toward holiness, beginning with this life and extending into infinity, as the efficient cause of our happiness, which likewise begins in this life and extends to a future one, in accordance with teleological laws. Later the mature Kants emphasis on reason and autonomy, rather than emotion and dependence on either authority or grace, may in part reflect his youthful reaction against Pietism. 2, kant attended college at the University of Königsberg, known as the Albertina, where his early interest in classics was quickly superseded by philosophy, which all first year students studied and which encompassed mathematics and physics as well as logic, metaphysics, ethics, and natural law.
In 1770, at the age of forty-six, Kant was appointed to the chair in logic and metaphysics at the Albertina, after teaching for fifteen years as an unsalaried lecturer and working since 1766 as a sublibrarian to supplement his income. So far we have seen this in Kants constructivist view of experience, according to which our understanding is the source of the general laws of nature. Self-consciousness for Kant therefore involves a priori knowledge about the necessary and universal truth expressed in this principle of apperception, and a priori knowledge cannot be based on experience. He thus reframes Leibniz-Wolffian special metaphysics as a practical science that he calls the metaphysics of morals.